That’s the Museum of Science and Technology, we visited this as part of our course Swedish Society. Sweden is famous for its science and engineering, so how can students from the Royal Institute of Technology doing a course on Swedish Society not visit this museum?
The visit started off with a lecture about the history of KTH. I don’t remember much of it anymore, but there was quite a long discussion on the gender balance of the students through the years. It used to be an all boys thing back when it was throught that women shouldn’t do engineering. Now I think it’s about equal.
The picture below is from the space exhibit. This being an excursion with a guided tour, there wasn’t enough time to see everything and appreciate the history properly.
Mining has always been an important part of Sweden’s economy. Even now, the northern town of Kiruna exists because there’s a mine there. They’re even going to move the town because it’s sitting on top of somewhere they want to mine. A problem with early mines is that they’re prone to flooding. Here’s one the earliest machines built to alleviate the problem. It pumps water out of the mine.
For demonstration purposes, it can be moved, although it’s now powered by electricity. Still, it makes many loud sounds and groans. In spite of its size, it’s not a particularly powerful pump.
In the same hall, there were exhibits of old forms of transport like cars and bicycles. Here’s the car that earned its driver the first speeding ticket to be issued in Sweden.
It wasn’t capable of going very fast. According to the tour guide, the policeman was able to run up to the driver to issue him the ticket. The ticket is now in the Police Museum, next door to the museum we were in.
Here we saw old cars and bicycles. While the basic design of a bicycle hasn’t changed much, the very first ones looked very very uncomfortable.
After hthe museum employee’s explanation of the stuff in that hall, there was some time left so he took us to the space exhibit and showed us around. In an enclosed display case, there’s a video camera of the same model as those which were used on the moon. The camera has specially designed buttons which are large and placed far apart so as to allow astronauts to manipulate the controls with gloves on. Anyone who has tried to use a compact camera with gloves in winter will know that it’s just a little bit difficult.
That shiny thing enclosed in glass behind the camera is a piece of rock from the moon.
Here’s a Foucault Pendulum. Never heard of it? Wikipedia to the rescue. Basically it’s an experiment to demonstrate the rotation of the earth.
As the earth spins, the pendulum’s swing will change relative to the paper below. If you could sit on the pendulum, you’ll see the room revolving around you over a 24 hour period.
This next picture was taken in another exhibit about communications. The orange thing criss crossing the ceiling is a speaking tube which visitors to the museum can try out.
Here’s someone trying out the speaking tube with his friend. He says it works.
Since mining has played such a large role in Sweden, the museum has an exhibit devoted to the history of mining. From the main hall with all those antique vehicles, there’s a small dark opening which is the entrance to the mine. You descend a staircase into the ‘mine’. There’s also an elevator which takes a long time to go down, thus giving you the impression of descending into a real mine, but it wasn’t working that day so we took the stairs.
The earliest way to mine was to use fire.
The fire heats the rocks and cracks them. Then the miners can come in with crowbars and stuff to break it up and transport it to the surface, where they extract the iron from the ore.
After the invention of dynamite, it was used instead. However, this involves drilling a hole in the rock first, still a very tedious, time consuming and tiring process requiring a huge heavy drill.
As technology progressed, they were able to use better drills and one person could manage more and more of them at one time. Nowadays they sit in front of computer terminals and control stuff from there.
Interestingly, open pit mining is one application of linear programming. It allows the mining company to find the best way to excavate and maximise profit based on the shape of the lode and the cost of digging etc etc.
Here are some example of iron ores.
There did seem to be lots of interesting things in the museum, but there wasn’t enough time to read through all the information panels, some of which was in English.
The good thing is, it’s free for KTH students.